3-D Computer Processor


Scientist at University of Rochesterb have developed a new generation of Computer Processors. These processors are based on3-Dimensional Circuits in contrary to 2-Dimensional Circuits of today.This can be said as the next major advance in computer processors technology. The latest 3-D processor is running at 1.4 gigahertz in the labs of University.
PAST ATTEMPTS VS LATEST RESEARCH

In the past attempts of making 3-D chips, scientist were just making a stack of regular processors. But at University of Rochesterb it was designed and built specifically to optimize all key processing functions vertically, through multiple layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions horizontally.

This design means that every tasks such as SynchronicityPower Distribution, and Long-Distance Signaling are all fully functioning in three dimensions for the first time.

EBY FRIEDMAN: THE MAN BEHIND 3-D CHIPS

Eby Friedman and his students has designed this chip, which uses many of the tricks of regular processors, but also accounts for different impedances that might occur from chip to chip, different operating speeds, and different power requirements. According to Eby Friedman, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rochester and faculty director of the pro of the processor says:- “I call it a cube now, because it’s not just a chip anymore. This is the way computing is going to have to be done in the future. When the chips are flush against each other, they can do things you could never do with a regular 2D chip”

3-D Chip

TODAYS INTEGRATED CHIPS AND PROBLEMS

The problem with today’s technology of integrated circuits is that, beyond a limit it is impossible to pack more chips next to each other which limits the capabilities of future processors. So number of integrated circuit designers anticipate someday expanding into the third dimension, stacking transistors on top of each other.

IMPORTANCE

Vertical Expansion of chips has lots of technical difficulties and the only solution to this is todesign a 3-D chip where all the layers interact like a single system. According to Friedman: Getting all three levels of the 3-D chip to act in harmony is like trying to devise a traffic control system for the entire United States-and then layering two more United States above the first and somehow getting every bit of traffic from any point on any level to its destination on any other level-while simultaneously coordinating the traffic of millions of other drivers.
Now if we replace the two United States layers to something more complicated like China and India where the driving laws and roads are quite different, and the complexity and challenge of designing a single control system to work in any chip begins to become apparent.

The 3-D Chip is essentially an entire circuit board folded up into a tiny package. With this technology the chips inside something like an iPod could be compacted to a tenth their current size with ten times the speed.

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NEXI – Robot with facial expressions


A latest invention by MIT Media Lab is a new robot that is able to show various facial expressions such as ‘slanting its eyebrows in anger’, or ‘raise them in surprise’, and show a wide assortment of facial expressions while communicating with people.

This latest achievement in the field of Robotics is named NEXI as it is framed as the next generation robots which is aimed for a range of applications for personal robots and human-robot teamwork.

DESIGNING 

The head and face of NEXI were designed by Xitome Design which is a innovative designing and development company that specializes in robotic design and development. The expressive robotics started with a neck mechanism sporting 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) at the base, plus pan-tilt-yaw of the head itself. The mechanism has been constructed to time the movements so they mimic human speed. The face of NEXI has been specially designed to use gaze, eyebrows, eyelids and an articulate mandible which helps in expressing a wide range of different emotions.

The chassis of NEXI is also advanced. It has been developed by the Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics UMASS (University of Massachusetts), Amherst. This chassis is based on the uBot5 mobile manipulator. The mobile base can balance dynamically on two wheels. The arms of NEXI can pick up a weight of up to 10 pounds and the plastic covering of the chassis can detect any kind of human touch.

CYNTHIA BREAZEAL: HEAD OF THE PROJECT

This project was headed by Media Lab’s Cynthia Breazeal, a well known robotics expert famous for earlier expressive robots such as Kismet. She is an Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT. She named her new product as an MDS (mobile, dextrous, social) robot.

Nexi Robot

FEATURES OF NEXI

Except a wide range of facial expressions, Nexi has many other features. It has self-balancing wheels like the Segway transporter, to ultimately ride on. Currently it uses an additional set of supportive wheels to operate as a statically stable platform in its early stage of development. It has hands which can be used to manipulate objects, eyes (video cameras), ears (an array of microphones), and a 3-D infrared camera and laser rangefinder which support real-time tracking of objects, people and voices as well as indoor navigation.