5G Technology


5G Technology

5G phoneTechnology is getting more and more advance now a days. Every day is like a birth day for a new technology. Since the invention of mobile phones each decade seems like we are stepping in to new era of technology. Firstly, we only used wired telephones, then we used cell phones and now here are Smart phones. We all like to have a smart phone in our pocket. This modification of technology is not a result of one night but it has taken many years to establish it. Earlier we have 2G, then there comes 2.5 G and after that 3G, 3.5G and now we are even using 4G(Not for India).What is the benefit of using these smart phones and what is the next in Generation of technology. Here is your answer. It is 5G.



Telephone companies are not using 5G term for this new technology instead they are considering it to say advance 4G. Here in this article I want to share some knowledge about this New Generation technology.

What is 5G ?

Every “G” added to technology refers to advancement in previously available technology. In the same way 5G is the new Generation of mobile and telephony technology. It is said that this will give high bit rate transfer with low costs. It will give high peak rate than the previous one. It is assumed that it will offer low infrastructure deployment cost and high capacity of simultaneous users.

What 5G has for users


As of now, there is a time for 5G to come in the market. But researchers are working to take it to the level which users could not even assume now. Some of the features that 5G will give are listed below

  1. High bit transfer rate
  2. Near about 1 GBPS speed
  3. Low traffic rates
  4. Better coverage
  5. Better security for users
  6. High resolution
  7. Remote Diagnostic
  8. Larger bandwidth

Some differences between 4G and 5G

Right now, 5G is purely an assumption while users are experiencing 4G. There is much to experience in 4G but 5G promise us to give much better features then 4G. I am giving some differences between 4G and 5G

  1. While 4G has bandwidth of 5MHz, it is supposed that 5G would have bandwidth up to 20 MHz (appx.).
  2. 4G does not support multiple user while 5G will have this feature.
  3. 4G offers some type of security for user but 5G would offer higher security.
  4. 5G would have higher bandwidth than 4G
  5. 5G would be cheaper than 4G
  6. There would be high resolution in 5G than 4G.

Researches going on to be implemented in 5G

1. Researchers are working so that the user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and can switch between them.
2. Instead of Internet Protocol version 4(IPv4) it will use IPv6.
3. It would have user centric network concept.

There are many other research going on. We hope to see them soon.

Smart phones expected to use 4G and 5G Technology

There are a few smart phones which promises to have 5G in future. In Apple iPhone5 and Nokia morph we would experience this technology. But you have to wait for them.
While if you want to experience a smart phone with 4G technology you can go any of the smart phone written below

  1.  Apple iPhone 4s
  2.  Nokia Lumia 900
  3.  HTC Titan 2

CERN Experiment – particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson


Topology of CERN Experiment

Geneva, 4 July 2012. At a seminar held at CERN today as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments presented their latest preliminary results in the search for the long sought Higgs particle. Both experiments observe a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV.

“We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV. The outstanding performance of the LHC and ATLAS and the huge efforts of many people have brought us to this exciting stage,” said ATLAS experiment spokesperson
“but a little more time is needed to prepare these results for publication.”

LHC

“The results are preliminary but the 5 sigma signal at around 125 GeV we’re seeing is dramatic. This is indeed a new particle. We know it must be a boson and it’s the heaviest boson ever found,” said CMS experiment spokesperson Joe Incandela. “The implications are very significant and it is precisely for this reason that we must be extremely diligent in all of our studies and cross-checks.”

Topology of LHC

“It’s hard not to get excited by these results,” said CERN Research Director Sergio Bertolucci. “ We stated last year that in 2012 we would either find a new Higgs-like particle or exclude the existence of the Standard Model Higgs. With all the necessary caution, it looks to me that we are at a branching point: the observation of this new particle indicates the path for the future towards a more detailed understanding of what we’re seeing in the data.”

The results presented today are labelled preliminary. They are based on data collected in 2011 and 2012, with the 2012 data still under analysis.  Publication of the analyses shown today is expected around the end of July. A more complete picture of today’s observations will emerge later this year after the LHC provides the experiments with more data.

The next step will be to determine the precise nature of the particle and its significance for our understanding of the universe. Are its properties as expected for the long-sought Higgs boson, the final missing ingredient in the Standard Model of particle physics? Or is it something more exotic? The Standard Model describes the fundamental particles from which we, and every visible thing in the universe, are made, and the forces acting between them. All the matter that we can see, however, appears to be no more than about 4% of the total. A more exotic version of the Higgs particle could be a bridge to understanding the 96% of the universe that remains obscure.

“We have reached a milestone in our understanding of nature,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “The discovery of a particle consistent with the Higgs boson opens the way to more detailed studies, requiring larger statistics, which will pin down the new particle’s properties, and is likely to shed light on other mysteries of our universe.”

Positive identification of the new particle’s characteristics will take considerable time and data. But whatever form the Higgs particle takes, our knowledge of the fundamental structure of matter is about to take a major step forward.

4G Technology


4G also called as Fourth-Generation Communications System, is a term used to describe the next step in wireless communications. A 4G system can provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be provided to users on an “Anytime, Anywhere” basis. The data transfer rates are also much higher than previous generations.

The main objectives of 4G are:

  1. 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system.
  2. This will be capable of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors.
  3. It can provide premium quality and high security.
  4. 4G offer all types of services at an affordable cost.

4G is developed to provide high quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications such as wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging, Video Chat, Mobile TV, High definition TV content, DVB, minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services.

4G technology allow high-quality smooth video transmission. It will enable fast downloading of full-length songs or music pieces in real time.

The business and popularity of 4Gmobiles is predicted to be very vast. On an average, by 2009, this 4Gmobile market will be over $400B and it will dominate the wireless communications, and its converged system will replace most conventional wireless infrastructure.

Data Rates For 4G:

The downloading speed for mobile Internet connections is from 9.6 kbit/s for 2G cellular at present. However, in actual use the data rates are usually slower, especially in crowded areas, or when there is congestion in network.

4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 20 megabits per second which means that it will be about 10-20 times faster than standard ASDL services.

In terms of connection seeds, 4G will be about 200 times faster than present 2G mobile data rates, and about 10 times faster than 3G broadband mobile. 3G data rates are currently 2Mbit/sec, which is very fast compared to 2G’s 9.6Kbit/sec.

GTU IDP/UDP Guidelines


Here I am showing you general guideline for final year GTU Project. It is very useful information for final year GTU students. After General Guidelines I show you Department vise guidelines. For any query or doubt comment at bottom of the post.
File:Gujarat Technological University logo.JPG

IDP = Industry Defined Project

UDP = User Defined Project 

General guidelines

  1. Semester 7th, teaching scheme is 0-0-4, with 4 credits worth of 150 marks

(Out of 150 marks, 50 marks are to be given for Problem Definition. The college, through internal evaluation, will assess the Industry Defined problems, submitted by students during the first week of the seventh semester. The remaining 100 marks are for the practical exam, to be conducted by the University.)

2.   Semester 8th, teaching scheme for the project is 0-0-8 or 0-0-12 with 8 or 12 credits, depending upon the branch. During the 8th semester, the project will carry 400 marks. (For EC 18 credits)

Note:

  • The format for problem definition may be specified by dept. /college. The common form for the problem definition can be downloaded from GTU website. (Click here)
  • In the 8th Semester out of 400 marks 300 marks are for the practical exam by the University and 100 marks are for Internal Practical exam.

3.  Each final year Project will be a Major Project. It will be divided into two Semesters of work.

Procedure

  1. Each defined project needs to be from Industry/Research organization/Govt.organization/socio-technical issues.
  2. Project identification should be based on “Shodh-Yatra” carried out by the students after completion of B.E Semester 6th Examination but before starting of the 7thSemester.
  3. Problem definition for the project needs to be submitted by every student in the first week of the 7th Semester to his/her college.
  4. Each definition will be evaluated in the beginning of the 7th semester itself by the College.
  5. Every College should send all the Problem Definitions in the specified format to GTU before 15th August, 2011.

Facilitation:

You may contact your Udisha Club Co-ordinator/Faculty /Department/Principal or Chairman of your Sankul for arranging “Shodh-Yatra” to the industries.

Guidelines for the students

  1. The students are required to identify their problem during the summer of 2011 and they are required to follow all the rules and instructions issued by department, for safety and other requirements.
  2. Each student or student group would work under the guidance of the Faculty from the College. In case any problem/other issue arises for the smooth progress of IDP discovery/Practical Training, it should be immediately brought to the notice of theUdisha Club Co-ordinator /Faculty /Department/Principal or Chairman of your Sankul.
  3. The students are required to submit the Problem Definition (in the specified format) to their Head of the Department in their College during the first week of the 7th semester.

Evaluation Scheme

Click for more information of evaluation scheme.

FAQ for Final Year Project

  • The final year project is divided into two semesters(7th & 8th) which should be based upon a real-life problem of an industry1.
  • If a faculty member, using his experience, gives a problem to a student for his/ her final year project, the student can use the problem to write the IDP. However the IDPproposal, will have to be submitted in the required format.
  • The students will scout for the Industry Defined Project(IDP) before commencement of the first semester of the final academic year. Within two weeks of commencement of academic session, the student will take review inputs from the faculty member, who is to be his Guide for the project. He will then submit a report on the problem to the HOD. The IDP is mandatory for all branches.
  • The final year project will be designed to develop a better product or a better process.
  • The number of students per group for a project has to be decided by the colleges.
  • Any student can go to any industry in or outside his Sankul. (25 GTU InnovationSankuls have been established across the State).
  • The students can take inter-disciplinary projects during the final year after consultation with the corresponding Guide in respective colleges.
  • The pre-final year students may seek the help of Udisha Club Patrons / Co-ordinatorsfor assignment to an appropriate industry.
  • The pre-final year students have to contact the corresponding Udisha Club Members and Departmental Coordinators of their college for any necessary assistance for scouting IDP. The Principals of the colleges are required to coordinate with SankulCo-Chairman(Academic) for any assistance. The Sankul Co-Chairmen of eachSankul may have established linked with the industry clusters in the region.
  • The students can choose an industry not mentioned in the list provided for reference by GTU Innovation Council .
  • The students have to mention the name of the industry / source of the industry defined project while submitting the project definition immediately after commencement of the academic session during the first semester of the Final Year. (In some cases, the industry may jointly mentor and evaluate the progress of the project during the academic year).
  • GTU Innovation Council will award for the best 3000 (1000 each in degree Engineering, Dip Engg and Masters) problems/project definitions.
  • Those students who have already undergone the training or industrial visit can define a project definition from the respective industries, based on the training or industrial visit.

The detailed format for industry defined project scouting is posted at the GTU website. A Department may modify the format for all its students. The students will have to submit the problem / project definition to the concerned college in soft copy. The problem definition should have content as per the given guidelines including details of previous attempt to solve such problems / projects and the proposed ways to solve the problem / process by the concerned student or the team of students in particular college while developing it in his/her final year.

Department vise IDP – UDP Info

Click  here as per your Branch.

If you have any query or doubt comment here.

Electronics and Communication IDP/UDP Guide


7th Semester – 4 credit

8th Semester – 18 credit


  1. Every student individually or in a group (group size is of 2-3 students. However, if project complexity demands a maximum group size of 4 students, the departmental committee should be convinced about such complexity and scope of the work.) shall take a project in the beginning of the seventh semester in consultation with the guide and the project must be completed in the eight semester. The individual or group can complete two different projects in both semesters (i.e. 7th and 8th) if they wish to do so.
  2. The project proposal must be submitted in the institute in the beginning of the seventh semester. While submitting project proposal care is to be taken that project will be completed within the available time of two terms. The individual’s or group’s project should involve analysis, design, and implementation and testing of substantial hardware, software or any combination thereof in the field of study in the seventh semester. The final title of the project work should be submitted at the beginning of the eighth semester.

Topic should be related to

  • Any application in the field of Electronics and Communication.
  • Investigation of the latest development in a specific field of Electronics and Communication
  • The investigation of practical problem in manufacture and / or testing of electronics communication equipments
  • The Microprocessor / Microcontroller based applications projects
  • Software development/Simulation project related to VLSI, Communication, Instrumentation, Signal Processing , Image Processing,GIS, Remote sensing applications etc
  • Interdisciplinary projects should be encouraged. The examination will be conducted
  • independently in respective departments.

3. Periodical monitoring and assessment will be done by the internal guides

4. A project report will be prepared and submitted for a viva – voce examination at the end of term.

Various Electronics Development Boards


A Development Board is an amalgamation of hardware and software. It is nothing but a printed circuit board containing a microcontroller or microprocessor with other peripherals as hardware and support packages in the form of toolchains , operating system to make up the software part.

Here I introduce you various Development Boards. So decide your needs, choose appropriate system and start making some good stuff and become Electronic Geek. Most important thing for final year engineering student, if you are planning to do project on embedded system, micro controllers , microprocessors this things are very helpful to you. It is also useful when some other project is needed microprocessor or micro controller. If you have any suggestion or query comment below the post. 

1. Arduino

File:Arduino316.jpg

Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It’s intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments.

The hardware consists of a simple open hardware design for the Arduino board with an Atmel AVR processor and on-board input/output support. The software consists of a standard programming language compiler and the boot loader that runs on the board.  The microcontroller on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can communicate with software running on a computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP).

The boards can be built by hand or purchased pre assembled; the software can be downloaded for free. The hardware reference designs (CAD files) are available under an open-source license, you are free to adapt them to your needs. The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars Electronica. 

2. Teensy

The Teensy is a complete USB-based microcontoller development system, in a very small footprint! All programming is done via the USB port. No special programmer is needed, only a standard “Mini-B” USB cable and a PC or Macintosh with a USB port. This is the latest version, 2.0.

  • USB can be any type of device
  • AVR processor, 16 MHz
  • Single pushbutton programming
  • Easy to use Teensy Loader application
  • Free software development tools
  • Works with Mac OS X, Linux & Windows
  • Tiny size, perfect for many projects
  • Available with pins for solder less breadboard

3. MSP430 Launchpad

TI’s Launchpad board is definitely a bargain. For your money, you get a set of 16-bit MSP430 processors, a mini-USB debugger and programming interface, and a set of Windows IDEs to choose from  and cost just $ 4.30.

The LaunchPad is an easy-to-use, affordable, and scalable introduction to the world of microcontrollers and the MSP430 family.

  • Easy-to-use – LaunchPad includes all of the hardware and software needed to get started. Open source projects and code examples help users get up and running quickly.
  • Affordable – For $4.30, the LaunchPad includes a development board, 2 programmable MSP430 microcontrollers, mini-USB cable, PCB connectors for expandability, external crystal for increased clock accuracy, and free & downloadable software integrated development environments (IDEs) – everything you need to get started today.
  • Scalable – The LaunchPad is a simple introduction to the MSP430 microcontroller family. As application requirements change, programs developed on the LaunchPad can be migrated to higher end MSP430 devices.

4. STM32

The STMicroelectronics STM32 Value line Discovery Kit is a quick and inexpensive way to discover STM32 32-bit microcontrollers (MCUs). The STMicroelectronics STM32 Value Line Discovery Kit is based on the STM32 Value line and includes a quick-start evaluation board with ST-LINK debugger / programmer that is delivered with IDE from Keil, IAR, and Atollic. The debugger can debug Discovery kit applications or other target board applications. This low-cost STMicroelectronics evaluation kit will satisfy hobbyists, first-time developers, and students.  This is even capable of running an RTOS if you’re trying to do a lot of things at once. Cost of this board is just $ 12.

The unparalleled and large range of STM32 devices, based on an industry-standard core and accompanied by a vast choice of tools and software, makes this family of products the ideal choice, both for small projects and for entire platform decisions.

5. Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi model B

The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card sized computer that plugs into your TV and a keyboard. It’s a capable little PC which can be used for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, word-processing and games. It also plays high-definition video. We want to see it being used by kids all over the world to learn programming.

The Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer developed in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation with the intention of stimulating the teaching of basic computer science in schools. The design is based on a Broadcom BCM2835 system on a chip (SoC), which includes an ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHzprocessor, VideoCore IV GPU, and 256 megabytes of RAM. The design does not include a built-in hard disk or solid-state drive, instead relying on an SD card for booting and long-term storage. The Foundation’s goal is to offer two versions, priced at US$ 25 and US$ 35 (plus local taxes). The Foundation started accepting orders for the higher priced model on 29 February 2012.

6. BeagleBoard

The BeagleBoard is a low-power open source hardware single-board computer produced by Texas Instruments in association with Digi-Key. The BeagleBoard was also designed with open source software development in mind, and as a way of demonstrating the Texas Instrument’s OMAP3530 system-on-a-chip. The board was developed by a small team of engineers as an educational board that could be used in colleges around the world to teach open source hardware and open source software capabilities. It is also sold to the public under the Creative Commons share-alike license.

The OMAP3530 includes an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU, a TMS320C64x+ DSP for accelerated video and audio decoding, and an Imagination Technologies PowerVR SGX530 GPU to provide accelerated 2D and 3D rendering that supports OpenGL ES 2.0.

A single SD/MMC card slot supporting SDIO, a USB On-The-Go port, an RS-232 serial connection, a JTAG connection, and two stereo 3.5 mm jacks for audio in/out are provided. Android, Ubuntu, Symbion capability, 256 Mb Flash Memory and 256 Mb RAM.

7. PandaBoard

The PandaBoard is a low-power, low-cost single-board computer development platform based on the Texas Instruments OMAP4430 system on a chip (SoC). The board has been available to the public at the subsidized price of US $174 since 27 October 2010. It is a community supported development platform.

The PandaBoard ES is a newer version based on the OMAP4460 SoC, with the CPU and GPU running at higher clock rates. The board has been available to the public at the subsidized price of US $182 since 16 November 2011. Like its predecessor, it is a community supported development platform.

The OMAP4430 SoC on the PandaBoard features a dual-core 1 GHz ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore CPU, a 304 MHz PowerVR SGX540 GPU, a C64x DSP, and 1 GB of DDR2 SDRAM. The PandaBoard ES uses a newer SoC, with a dual-core 1.2 GHz CPU and 384 MHz GPU. Primary persistent storage is via an SD Card slot allowing SDHC cards up to 32 GB to be used. Linux kernel , Android, Ubuntu compatibility, integrated SGX540 graphics processor and provides 1080p HDMI output are features of this PandaBoard.

Conclusion

This are amazing things to work on. It also saves time. No need for tedious soldering work and also come with guarantee warrantee features. Very easy to implement and very easy to make some cool stuff and projects. So start using it and don’t forget to do comment. 

3-D Computer Processor


Scientist at University of Rochesterb have developed a new generation of Computer Processors. These processors are based on3-Dimensional Circuits in contrary to 2-Dimensional Circuits of today.This can be said as the next major advance in computer processors technology. The latest 3-D processor is running at 1.4 gigahertz in the labs of University.
PAST ATTEMPTS VS LATEST RESEARCH

In the past attempts of making 3-D chips, scientist were just making a stack of regular processors. But at University of Rochesterb it was designed and built specifically to optimize all key processing functions vertically, through multiple layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions horizontally.

This design means that every tasks such as SynchronicityPower Distribution, and Long-Distance Signaling are all fully functioning in three dimensions for the first time.

EBY FRIEDMAN: THE MAN BEHIND 3-D CHIPS

Eby Friedman and his students has designed this chip, which uses many of the tricks of regular processors, but also accounts for different impedances that might occur from chip to chip, different operating speeds, and different power requirements. According to Eby Friedman, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rochester and faculty director of the pro of the processor says:- “I call it a cube now, because it’s not just a chip anymore. This is the way computing is going to have to be done in the future. When the chips are flush against each other, they can do things you could never do with a regular 2D chip”

3-D Chip

TODAYS INTEGRATED CHIPS AND PROBLEMS

The problem with today’s technology of integrated circuits is that, beyond a limit it is impossible to pack more chips next to each other which limits the capabilities of future processors. So number of integrated circuit designers anticipate someday expanding into the third dimension, stacking transistors on top of each other.

IMPORTANCE

Vertical Expansion of chips has lots of technical difficulties and the only solution to this is todesign a 3-D chip where all the layers interact like a single system. According to Friedman: Getting all three levels of the 3-D chip to act in harmony is like trying to devise a traffic control system for the entire United States-and then layering two more United States above the first and somehow getting every bit of traffic from any point on any level to its destination on any other level-while simultaneously coordinating the traffic of millions of other drivers.
Now if we replace the two United States layers to something more complicated like China and India where the driving laws and roads are quite different, and the complexity and challenge of designing a single control system to work in any chip begins to become apparent.

The 3-D Chip is essentially an entire circuit board folded up into a tiny package. With this technology the chips inside something like an iPod could be compacted to a tenth their current size with ten times the speed.