Black Hole Mystery Solved


Black holes are an object of research and mystery for the whole scientific community from decades. Many researchers are working day and night to explore the mysteries of black holes. In this series, arecent invention by Yale University Astrophysicist revels the fact that, There is a upper limit of the mass of any black hole. This research has been also published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

WHAT ARE BLACK HOLES?

As most of you are aware BLACK HOLE is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even electromagnetic radiation can escape from it. Dur to this black holes can not be seen (as they absorbs light radiations) but can only be experienced by their ultra strong gravitational pull. That’s why they are named as BLACK HOLE.. They continue to grow in size by absorbing any matter that comes in range of their gravitational field.

HOW MUCH THEY CAN GROW?

Till now it was not sure that what can be maximum size of a black hole. These black holes are now known to exist throughout the Universe and the largest and most massive are at the centers of the largest galaxies. These “ultra-massive” black holes have reported to have mass about One Billion Times that of our own Sun.

 

Black Hole

CONCEPT OF UPPER MASS LIMIT

According to the new research by Priyamvada Natarajan, an Associate Professor of Astronomy and Physics at Yale University and a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, it has been proved, that even the biggest of these Black Holes can’t keep growing forever. Instead, they appear to curb their own growth – once they accumulate about10 billion times the mass of the Sun.

Black Hole

THEORY BEHIND THIS RESEARCH

Normally Black Holes continue to accumulate mass by absorbing matter from neighboring gas, dust and stars. But according to new research by Priyamvada Natarajan, that it is possible only to a certain limit, irrespective of the position of black hole. The reason behind this is that, “Eventually these Black Holes reach the point when they radiate so much energy as they consume their surroundings that they end up interfering with the very gas supply that feeds them, which may interrupt nearby star formation.”

EXPERIMENT BY PRIYAMVADA NATARAJAN

Natarajan used existing Optical and X-ray Data of these Ultra-Massive Black Holes to show that, in order for those various observations to be consistent, the black holes must essentially stop at some point in their evolution. This helped her to prove this fact that these black holes can not grow indefinitely in mass and there is some upper mass limit of black holes.

CERN Experiment – particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson


Topology of CERN Experiment

Geneva, 4 July 2012. At a seminar held at CERN today as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments presented their latest preliminary results in the search for the long sought Higgs particle. Both experiments observe a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV.

“We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV. The outstanding performance of the LHC and ATLAS and the huge efforts of many people have brought us to this exciting stage,” said ATLAS experiment spokesperson
“but a little more time is needed to prepare these results for publication.”

LHC

“The results are preliminary but the 5 sigma signal at around 125 GeV we’re seeing is dramatic. This is indeed a new particle. We know it must be a boson and it’s the heaviest boson ever found,” said CMS experiment spokesperson Joe Incandela. “The implications are very significant and it is precisely for this reason that we must be extremely diligent in all of our studies and cross-checks.”

Topology of LHC

“It’s hard not to get excited by these results,” said CERN Research Director Sergio Bertolucci. “ We stated last year that in 2012 we would either find a new Higgs-like particle or exclude the existence of the Standard Model Higgs. With all the necessary caution, it looks to me that we are at a branching point: the observation of this new particle indicates the path for the future towards a more detailed understanding of what we’re seeing in the data.”

The results presented today are labelled preliminary. They are based on data collected in 2011 and 2012, with the 2012 data still under analysis.  Publication of the analyses shown today is expected around the end of July. A more complete picture of today’s observations will emerge later this year after the LHC provides the experiments with more data.

The next step will be to determine the precise nature of the particle and its significance for our understanding of the universe. Are its properties as expected for the long-sought Higgs boson, the final missing ingredient in the Standard Model of particle physics? Or is it something more exotic? The Standard Model describes the fundamental particles from which we, and every visible thing in the universe, are made, and the forces acting between them. All the matter that we can see, however, appears to be no more than about 4% of the total. A more exotic version of the Higgs particle could be a bridge to understanding the 96% of the universe that remains obscure.

“We have reached a milestone in our understanding of nature,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “The discovery of a particle consistent with the Higgs boson opens the way to more detailed studies, requiring larger statistics, which will pin down the new particle’s properties, and is likely to shed light on other mysteries of our universe.”

Positive identification of the new particle’s characteristics will take considerable time and data. But whatever form the Higgs particle takes, our knowledge of the fundamental structure of matter is about to take a major step forward.

GTU IDP/UDP Guidelines


Here I am showing you general guideline for final year GTU Project. It is very useful information for final year GTU students. After General Guidelines I show you Department vise guidelines. For any query or doubt comment at bottom of the post.
File:Gujarat Technological University logo.JPG

IDP = Industry Defined Project

UDP = User Defined Project 

General guidelines

  1. Semester 7th, teaching scheme is 0-0-4, with 4 credits worth of 150 marks

(Out of 150 marks, 50 marks are to be given for Problem Definition. The college, through internal evaluation, will assess the Industry Defined problems, submitted by students during the first week of the seventh semester. The remaining 100 marks are for the practical exam, to be conducted by the University.)

2.   Semester 8th, teaching scheme for the project is 0-0-8 or 0-0-12 with 8 or 12 credits, depending upon the branch. During the 8th semester, the project will carry 400 marks. (For EC 18 credits)

Note:

  • The format for problem definition may be specified by dept. /college. The common form for the problem definition can be downloaded from GTU website. (Click here)
  • In the 8th Semester out of 400 marks 300 marks are for the practical exam by the University and 100 marks are for Internal Practical exam.

3.  Each final year Project will be a Major Project. It will be divided into two Semesters of work.

Procedure

  1. Each defined project needs to be from Industry/Research organization/Govt.organization/socio-technical issues.
  2. Project identification should be based on “Shodh-Yatra” carried out by the students after completion of B.E Semester 6th Examination but before starting of the 7thSemester.
  3. Problem definition for the project needs to be submitted by every student in the first week of the 7th Semester to his/her college.
  4. Each definition will be evaluated in the beginning of the 7th semester itself by the College.
  5. Every College should send all the Problem Definitions in the specified format to GTU before 15th August, 2011.

Facilitation:

You may contact your Udisha Club Co-ordinator/Faculty /Department/Principal or Chairman of your Sankul for arranging “Shodh-Yatra” to the industries.

Guidelines for the students

  1. The students are required to identify their problem during the summer of 2011 and they are required to follow all the rules and instructions issued by department, for safety and other requirements.
  2. Each student or student group would work under the guidance of the Faculty from the College. In case any problem/other issue arises for the smooth progress of IDP discovery/Practical Training, it should be immediately brought to the notice of theUdisha Club Co-ordinator /Faculty /Department/Principal or Chairman of your Sankul.
  3. The students are required to submit the Problem Definition (in the specified format) to their Head of the Department in their College during the first week of the 7th semester.

Evaluation Scheme

Click for more information of evaluation scheme.

FAQ for Final Year Project

  • The final year project is divided into two semesters(7th & 8th) which should be based upon a real-life problem of an industry1.
  • If a faculty member, using his experience, gives a problem to a student for his/ her final year project, the student can use the problem to write the IDP. However the IDPproposal, will have to be submitted in the required format.
  • The students will scout for the Industry Defined Project(IDP) before commencement of the first semester of the final academic year. Within two weeks of commencement of academic session, the student will take review inputs from the faculty member, who is to be his Guide for the project. He will then submit a report on the problem to the HOD. The IDP is mandatory for all branches.
  • The final year project will be designed to develop a better product or a better process.
  • The number of students per group for a project has to be decided by the colleges.
  • Any student can go to any industry in or outside his Sankul. (25 GTU InnovationSankuls have been established across the State).
  • The students can take inter-disciplinary projects during the final year after consultation with the corresponding Guide in respective colleges.
  • The pre-final year students may seek the help of Udisha Club Patrons / Co-ordinatorsfor assignment to an appropriate industry.
  • The pre-final year students have to contact the corresponding Udisha Club Members and Departmental Coordinators of their college for any necessary assistance for scouting IDP. The Principals of the colleges are required to coordinate with SankulCo-Chairman(Academic) for any assistance. The Sankul Co-Chairmen of eachSankul may have established linked with the industry clusters in the region.
  • The students can choose an industry not mentioned in the list provided for reference by GTU Innovation Council .
  • The students have to mention the name of the industry / source of the industry defined project while submitting the project definition immediately after commencement of the academic session during the first semester of the Final Year. (In some cases, the industry may jointly mentor and evaluate the progress of the project during the academic year).
  • GTU Innovation Council will award for the best 3000 (1000 each in degree Engineering, Dip Engg and Masters) problems/project definitions.
  • Those students who have already undergone the training or industrial visit can define a project definition from the respective industries, based on the training or industrial visit.

The detailed format for industry defined project scouting is posted at the GTU website. A Department may modify the format for all its students. The students will have to submit the problem / project definition to the concerned college in soft copy. The problem definition should have content as per the given guidelines including details of previous attempt to solve such problems / projects and the proposed ways to solve the problem / process by the concerned student or the team of students in particular college while developing it in his/her final year.

Department vise IDP – UDP Info

Click  here as per your Branch.

If you have any query or doubt comment here.