Black Hole Mystery Solved


Black holes are an object of research and mystery for the whole scientific community from decades. Many researchers are working day and night to explore the mysteries of black holes. In this series, arecent invention by Yale University Astrophysicist revels the fact that, There is a upper limit of the mass of any black hole. This research has been also published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

WHAT ARE BLACK HOLES?

As most of you are aware BLACK HOLE is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even electromagnetic radiation can escape from it. Dur to this black holes can not be seen (as they absorbs light radiations) but can only be experienced by their ultra strong gravitational pull. That’s why they are named as BLACK HOLE.. They continue to grow in size by absorbing any matter that comes in range of their gravitational field.

HOW MUCH THEY CAN GROW?

Till now it was not sure that what can be maximum size of a black hole. These black holes are now known to exist throughout the Universe and the largest and most massive are at the centers of the largest galaxies. These “ultra-massive” black holes have reported to have mass about One Billion Times that of our own Sun.

 

Black Hole

CONCEPT OF UPPER MASS LIMIT

According to the new research by Priyamvada Natarajan, an Associate Professor of Astronomy and Physics at Yale University and a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, it has been proved, that even the biggest of these Black Holes can’t keep growing forever. Instead, they appear to curb their own growth – once they accumulate about10 billion times the mass of the Sun.

Black Hole

THEORY BEHIND THIS RESEARCH

Normally Black Holes continue to accumulate mass by absorbing matter from neighboring gas, dust and stars. But according to new research by Priyamvada Natarajan, that it is possible only to a certain limit, irrespective of the position of black hole. The reason behind this is that, “Eventually these Black Holes reach the point when they radiate so much energy as they consume their surroundings that they end up interfering with the very gas supply that feeds them, which may interrupt nearby star formation.”

EXPERIMENT BY PRIYAMVADA NATARAJAN

Natarajan used existing Optical and X-ray Data of these Ultra-Massive Black Holes to show that, in order for those various observations to be consistent, the black holes must essentially stop at some point in their evolution. This helped her to prove this fact that these black holes can not grow indefinitely in mass and there is some upper mass limit of black holes.

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5G Technology


5G Technology

5G phoneTechnology is getting more and more advance now a days. Every day is like a birth day for a new technology. Since the invention of mobile phones each decade seems like we are stepping in to new era of technology. Firstly, we only used wired telephones, then we used cell phones and now here are Smart phones. We all like to have a smart phone in our pocket. This modification of technology is not a result of one night but it has taken many years to establish it. Earlier we have 2G, then there comes 2.5 G and after that 3G, 3.5G and now we are even using 4G(Not for India).What is the benefit of using these smart phones and what is the next in Generation of technology. Here is your answer. It is 5G.



Telephone companies are not using 5G term for this new technology instead they are considering it to say advance 4G. Here in this article I want to share some knowledge about this New Generation technology.

What is 5G ?

Every “G” added to technology refers to advancement in previously available technology. In the same way 5G is the new Generation of mobile and telephony technology. It is said that this will give high bit rate transfer with low costs. It will give high peak rate than the previous one. It is assumed that it will offer low infrastructure deployment cost and high capacity of simultaneous users.

What 5G has for users


As of now, there is a time for 5G to come in the market. But researchers are working to take it to the level which users could not even assume now. Some of the features that 5G will give are listed below

  1. High bit transfer rate
  2. Near about 1 GBPS speed
  3. Low traffic rates
  4. Better coverage
  5. Better security for users
  6. High resolution
  7. Remote Diagnostic
  8. Larger bandwidth

Some differences between 4G and 5G

Right now, 5G is purely an assumption while users are experiencing 4G. There is much to experience in 4G but 5G promise us to give much better features then 4G. I am giving some differences between 4G and 5G

  1. While 4G has bandwidth of 5MHz, it is supposed that 5G would have bandwidth up to 20 MHz (appx.).
  2. 4G does not support multiple user while 5G will have this feature.
  3. 4G offers some type of security for user but 5G would offer higher security.
  4. 5G would have higher bandwidth than 4G
  5. 5G would be cheaper than 4G
  6. There would be high resolution in 5G than 4G.

Researches going on to be implemented in 5G

1. Researchers are working so that the user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and can switch between them.
2. Instead of Internet Protocol version 4(IPv4) it will use IPv6.
3. It would have user centric network concept.

There are many other research going on. We hope to see them soon.

Smart phones expected to use 4G and 5G Technology

There are a few smart phones which promises to have 5G in future. In Apple iPhone5 and Nokia morph we would experience this technology. But you have to wait for them.
While if you want to experience a smart phone with 4G technology you can go any of the smart phone written below

  1.  Apple iPhone 4s
  2.  Nokia Lumia 900
  3.  HTC Titan 2

CERN Experiment – particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson


Topology of CERN Experiment

Geneva, 4 July 2012. At a seminar held at CERN today as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments presented their latest preliminary results in the search for the long sought Higgs particle. Both experiments observe a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV.

“We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV. The outstanding performance of the LHC and ATLAS and the huge efforts of many people have brought us to this exciting stage,” said ATLAS experiment spokesperson
“but a little more time is needed to prepare these results for publication.”

LHC

“The results are preliminary but the 5 sigma signal at around 125 GeV we’re seeing is dramatic. This is indeed a new particle. We know it must be a boson and it’s the heaviest boson ever found,” said CMS experiment spokesperson Joe Incandela. “The implications are very significant and it is precisely for this reason that we must be extremely diligent in all of our studies and cross-checks.”

Topology of LHC

“It’s hard not to get excited by these results,” said CERN Research Director Sergio Bertolucci. “ We stated last year that in 2012 we would either find a new Higgs-like particle or exclude the existence of the Standard Model Higgs. With all the necessary caution, it looks to me that we are at a branching point: the observation of this new particle indicates the path for the future towards a more detailed understanding of what we’re seeing in the data.”

The results presented today are labelled preliminary. They are based on data collected in 2011 and 2012, with the 2012 data still under analysis.  Publication of the analyses shown today is expected around the end of July. A more complete picture of today’s observations will emerge later this year after the LHC provides the experiments with more data.

The next step will be to determine the precise nature of the particle and its significance for our understanding of the universe. Are its properties as expected for the long-sought Higgs boson, the final missing ingredient in the Standard Model of particle physics? Or is it something more exotic? The Standard Model describes the fundamental particles from which we, and every visible thing in the universe, are made, and the forces acting between them. All the matter that we can see, however, appears to be no more than about 4% of the total. A more exotic version of the Higgs particle could be a bridge to understanding the 96% of the universe that remains obscure.

“We have reached a milestone in our understanding of nature,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “The discovery of a particle consistent with the Higgs boson opens the way to more detailed studies, requiring larger statistics, which will pin down the new particle’s properties, and is likely to shed light on other mysteries of our universe.”

Positive identification of the new particle’s characteristics will take considerable time and data. But whatever form the Higgs particle takes, our knowledge of the fundamental structure of matter is about to take a major step forward.

4G Technology


4G also called as Fourth-Generation Communications System, is a term used to describe the next step in wireless communications. A 4G system can provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be provided to users on an “Anytime, Anywhere” basis. The data transfer rates are also much higher than previous generations.

The main objectives of 4G are:

  1. 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system.
  2. This will be capable of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors.
  3. It can provide premium quality and high security.
  4. 4G offer all types of services at an affordable cost.

4G is developed to provide high quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications such as wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging, Video Chat, Mobile TV, High definition TV content, DVB, minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services.

4G technology allow high-quality smooth video transmission. It will enable fast downloading of full-length songs or music pieces in real time.

The business and popularity of 4Gmobiles is predicted to be very vast. On an average, by 2009, this 4Gmobile market will be over $400B and it will dominate the wireless communications, and its converged system will replace most conventional wireless infrastructure.

Data Rates For 4G:

The downloading speed for mobile Internet connections is from 9.6 kbit/s for 2G cellular at present. However, in actual use the data rates are usually slower, especially in crowded areas, or when there is congestion in network.

4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 20 megabits per second which means that it will be about 10-20 times faster than standard ASDL services.

In terms of connection seeds, 4G will be about 200 times faster than present 2G mobile data rates, and about 10 times faster than 3G broadband mobile. 3G data rates are currently 2Mbit/sec, which is very fast compared to 2G’s 9.6Kbit/sec.